【TED 演讲】为什么伟大的建筑都需要诉说一段故事/奥雷·舍人

【TED 演讲】为什么伟大的建筑都需要诉说一段故事/奥雷·舍人

Ole Scheeren (奥雷·舍人)
Büro Ole Scheeren 创办人

蜚声国际的 Ole Scheeren 是德国建筑界的神童。39岁时,他已经设计了数个前卫且振奋人心的建筑。作品包括:
新加坡The Interlace大型住宅综合体
曼谷最高的摩天大厦MahaNakhon
洛杉矶国家郡立艺术博物馆
纽约和洛杉矶的Prada旗舰店
北京的中国中央电视台及电视文化中心大楼

Ole Scheeren 自1995年起便在著名的荷兰大都会建筑事务所(OMA)担任建筑师,主管OMA在亚洲的项目。作为主管合伙人,他主导并成功完成了OMA中国中央电视台(CCTV)和电视文化中心(TVCC)项目。

2010年他离开效力15年的OMA,创立了 Büro Ole Scheeren 建筑事务所,并先后在伦敦、香港和北京成立了办公室。

现时 Ole Scheeren 正参与深圳新市中心的开发项目,同时亦担任香港大学的客座教授。

本文推荐观看的视频是 Ole Scheeren 的一次TED演讲,其中介绍了他的5个建筑项目。

点击视频右下角可以选择翻译字幕的语言类型。

【演讲文字翻译稿】

过去的几个世纪,建筑界被一条著名的魔咒–「形式追随功能」所禁锢,这个理论一度成为当代最伟大的宣言,同时又是个危险的紧箍咒,因为它虽让建筑摆脱了装饰的束缚,但同时也宣判建筑走向了功利且倍受约束的终点。当然,建筑与功能有关,但这让我想起了Bernard Tschumi(伯纳德-屈米,著名建筑评论家、设计师)对这句话的改写,并提出一个我完全不同的见解–form follows fiction「形式追随故事」。我们可以这样想:如果建筑设计与建筑物是一个空间的故事,有关居住在那裡的人的故事,有关在里面工作的人的故事,那么我们就可以想像建筑物创造出来的经历。

For much of the past century, architecturewas under the spell of a famous doctrine. “Form follows function” hadbecome modernity’s ambitious manifesto and detrimental straitjacket, as itliberated architecture from the decorative, but condemned it to utilitarianrigor and restrained purpose. Of course, architecture is about function, but Iwant to remember a rewriting of this phrase by Bernard Tschumi, and I want topropose a completely different quality. If form follows fiction, we could thinkof architecture and buildings as a space of stories — stories of the peoplethat live there, of the people that work in these buildings. And we could startto imagine the experiences our buildings create.

在这样的概念下,我对fiction感兴趣不是因为它的虚幻,而是它的真实,建筑可以真实地反映人们的生活和互动关系。我们的建筑物一开始是一些雏形、想法,它让我们了解生活或工作空间可以有什么不同,以及文化与媒体空间现今可以如何展现。

In this sense, I’m interested in fiction not as the implausible but asthe real, as the reality of what architecture means for the people that live init and with it. Our buildings are prototypes, ideas for how the space of livingor how the space of working could be different, and what a space of culture ora space of media could look like today.

我们的建筑物必须是真实的,它们会被建造出来,建筑物是一种实体物质与想法概念两者之间明确的结合产物。我认为建筑物是一种组织结构,它们的核心思想像是一个系统::我们要如何把事情安排的具有功能性与体验性呢?我们要如何创造出可以引发一系列关系与故事发生的结构?而我们在建筑物里面的居民及使用者的虚幻故事要如何在描绘建筑物的同时也能让建筑物描绘出这些故事?

Our buildings are real; they’re being built. They’re an explicitengagement in physical reality and conceptual possibility. I think of ourarchitecture as organizational structures. At their core is indeed structuralthinking, like a system: How can we arrange things in both a functional andexperiential way  How can we createstructures that generate a series of relationships and narratives  And how can fictive stories of theinhabitants and users of our buildings script the architecture, while thearchitecture scripts those stories at the same time?

而这当中就会产生出第二个词汇,我称之为「叙事综合体」–多个同时进行的故事结构由我们创造出的建筑物去展现出来。所以我们可以想像建筑是个呈现关联性的复杂系统,既具备标准化和功能性,又具备体验性和情绪性,或者社交性。

And here comes the second term into play,what I call “narrative hybrids” — structures of multiplesimultaneous stories that unfold throughout the buildings we create. So wecould think of architecture as complex systems of relationships, both in aprogrammatic and functional way and in an experiential and emotive or socialway.

一、中国中央电视台(CCTV)总部

【TED 演讲】为什么伟大的建筑都需要诉说一段故事/奥雷·舍人

这是中国中央电视台(CCTV)总部,我和Rem Koolhaas(库哈斯)在大都会建筑事务所共同设计,2002年我第一次抵达北京时,城市规划部门向我们展示了这张图:除了当时少数的几栋建筑,市中心的商务区规划了雨林般的上百栋高楼大厦。所以我们必须在一个除了垂直以外其他都没有的规划概念底下做设计。

This is the headquarters forChina’snational broadcaster, which I designed together with Rem Koolhaas at OMA. WhenI first arrived in Beijingin 2002, the city planners showed us this image: a forest of several hundredskyscrapers to emerge in the central business district, except at that time,only a handful of them existed. So we had to design in a context that we knewalmost nothing about, except one thing: it would all be about verticality.

当然,高楼大厦是垂直的–它是个死板板的层级结构:顶部总是最好的,底部总是最差的。所以似乎是你盖的越高越好。我们不仅要问:建筑物可不可以有一个完全不同的概念?它可不可以摆脱层级结构体系?它可不可以是一种合作而不是隔离的系统?所以我们把这个竖向的塔弯回到本身,形成一种可以互相串通的环状物。

Of course, the skyscraper is vertical – it’s a profoundly hierarchicalstructure, the top always the best, the bottom the worst, and the taller youare, the better, so it seems. And we wanted to ask ourselves, could a buildingbe about a completely different quality Could it undo this hierarchy, and could it be about a system that ismore about collaboration, rather than isolation.

我们的想法是,把电视制作的所有功能融合到单一系统里面:新闻、节目制作、广播、研究、训练、管理等全部融合到可互相串通的这个环形里面,人们可以在这里互相见面、交流、合作。

Our idea was to bring all aspects oftelevision-making into one single structure: news, program production,broadcasting, research and training, administration — all into a circuit ofinterconnected activities where people would meet in a process of exchange andcollaboration.

我一直很喜欢这张图,就像人体的构造,它有自己的器官及循环系统,如同学校的生物课所展示的效果。你会突然发现建筑不再只是建筑材料的堆积,而是一个有机体、生命体。

I still very much like this image. It reminds one of biology classes, ifyou remember the human body with all its organs and circulatory systems, likeat school. And suddenly you think of architecture no longer as built substance,but as an organism, as a life form.

而当你剖析这个有机体时,你会辨识出一系列的主要功能区域–节目制作、广播中心、新闻。他们与一些社交设施紧紧地缠绕在一起:会议室、餐厅、交谈区等人们碰面交流的场合。所以这个建物的组织结构是一种混合体,介于技术与社交及人员与行为之间。我们使用类似循环系统的环形建物来串联每样东西,使访客与员工都能在这个伟大的联合体里面,体验不同的机能。

And as you start to dissect thisorganism, you can identify a series of primary technical clusters – programproduction, broadcasting center and news. Those are tightly intertwined withsocial clusters: meeting rooms, canteens, chat areas – informal spaces forpeople to meet and exchange. So the organizational structure of this buildingwas a hybrid between the technical and the social, the human and theperformative. And of course, we used the loop of the building as a circulatorysystem, to thread everything together and to allow both visitors and staff toexperience all these different functions in a great unity.

拥有47.3万平方米的建筑面积,使它成为全世界最大的建筑物之一,有10,000人在里面活动。当然,这样的规模超出了我们对传统建筑物的理解范围。所以我们停工了一阵子,然后坐下来,剪出10,000张小贴纸,然后把它们粘在一个模型上,只是单纯地想挑战我们自己,来理解这个数量真正的含意。

With 473,000 square meters, it is one ofthe largest buildings ever built in the world. It has a population of over10,000 people, and of course, this is a scale that exceeds the comprehension ofmany things and the scale of typical architecture. So we stopped work for awhile and sat down and cut 10,000 little sticks and glued them onto a model,just simply to confront ourselves with what that quantity actually meant.

与数字无关,而是人—生活在这一栋大楼里面的人,我们要理解这些人并为这个建筑物写出脚本,于是我们创造出五种假想的角色,然后追踪他们在这栋大楼一整天的生活状况:他们会在哪碰面、他们的体验如何等?所以,这是一种描绘与设计建筑物的方法,也是一种体会它的方式。

But of course, it’s not a number, it is thepeople, it is a community that inhabits the building, and in order to bothcomprehend this, but also script this architecture, we identified fivecharacters, hypothetical characters, and we followed them throughout their dayin a life in this building, thought of where they would meet, what they wouldexperience. So it was a way to script and design the building, but of course,also to communicate its experiences.

这是广播主控室,技术性安装层面的要求相当大,它可同时播放200个频道。

This is the main broadcast control room, atechnical installation so large, it can broadcast over 200 channelssimultaneously.

这是它当今矗立在北京的样子。它的第一次现场直播是2012年的伦敦奥运会,在北京奥运会之前,它的外部装修已经全部完成。你可以在最顶端的75米悬臂处看风景,这三个小圆圈,就是贯穿整栋大楼开放回廊的一部分。你可以站在玻璃上面俯瞰你脚下整个城市在缓缓流动。

And this is how the building stands in Beijing today. Its firstbroadcast live was the London Olympics 2012, after it had been completed fromthe outside for the Beijing Olympics. And you can see at the very tip of this75-meter cantilever, those three little circles. And they’re indeed part of apublic loop that goes through the building. They’re a piece of glass that youcan stand on and watch the city pass by below you in slow motion.

这栋建筑物已经是北京生活的的一部分,它就在那。现在它也变成了北京一个相当受欢迎的婚纱摄影背景。

The building has become part of everydaylife in Beijing.It is there. It has also become a very popular backdrop for weddingphotography.

一本杂志的封面描述了这栋建筑的角色,《城市漫步》週刊很像伦敦的《Time Out》週刊,它描述城市里一周发生了哪些事情。突然间你会发现,这栋大楼不再仅是一栋大楼,它扮演了城市一员的角色,它像是在北京生活的一系列人物中的其中一员。于是建筑突然间像是具有了参与生活的品质,它可以参与创造故事、展现故事。我认为这是我们思想上必须相信的一个信念。

But its most important moment is maybe sillthis one. “That’s Beijing”is similar to “Time Out,” a magazine that broadcasts what ishappening in town during the week, and suddenly you see the building portrayedno longer as physical matter, but actually as an urban actor, as part of aseries of personas that define the life of the city. So architecture suddenlyassumes the quality of a player, of something that writes stories and performsstories. And I think that could be one of its primary meanings that we believein.

这栋大楼还有另外一个故事,就是它的建造者的故事——400个我所带领的工程人员与建筑师,合作了差不多10年,我们花时间一起设计这栋大楼,从想像它建成后的样子,到最终在中国把它建造完成。

But of course, there’s another story to this building. It is the story of the people that made it – 400 engineers and architects that I was guiding over almost a decade of collaborative work that we spent together in scripting this building, in imagining its reality and ultimately getting it built in China.

二、新加坡大型住宅开发案
【TED 演讲】为什么伟大的建筑都需要诉说一段故事/奥雷·舍人

这是一个在新加坡的大型住宅开发案,我们看一下新加坡、亚洲乃至全世界的其他国家,他们都是以高楼大厦为主,可是这种类型的大楼制造了更多的疏离感而非亲近感,而我想质疑:我们对住家的想法到底是什么?我们的公寓大厦不仅要有个人的私密性和个性,还要有集体活动的需求,我们要想想如何创造一个社区交流的环境,一个可以让你乐于分享的环境。

This is a residential development inSingapore,large scale. If we look at Singapore like most of Asia and more and more of theworld, of course, it is dominated by the tower, a typology that indeed createsmore isolation than connectedness, and I wanted to ask, how could we thinkabout living, not only in terms of the privacy and individuality of ourselvesand our apartment, but in an idea of a collective  How could we think about creating a communalenvironment in which sharing things was as great as having your own.

我们必须设计1,040间公寓,典型的答案是– 外型会像这样子:根据政府法规,会有24层的楼高限制,12栋大楼,只剩下一点点开放空间,其它什么都没有–相当拥挤严密的系统,虽然大楼可以将你与其他人分隔开,但这根本不能给你隐私,因为你离隔壁邻居相当近,所以盖好之后的公寓群质量堪忧。

The typical answer to the question — wehad to design 1,040 apartments — would have looked like this: 24-story heightlimit given by the planning authorities, 12 towers with nothing but residual inbetween — a very tight system that, although the tower isolates you, itdoesn’t even give you privacy, because you’re so close to the next one, that itis very questionable what the qualities of this would be.

所以,我提议推掉高塔,把垂直设计改成水平设计,并把它们堆叠起来,从侧面看它有点不规则排列,如果你从直升机往下看,你可以看到,它的组织架构实际上是个水平建物堆叠起来的网状六边形。这是为了创造出几个大型户外庭院,这些中央空间为社区规划了多种设施与功能。

So I proposed to topple the towers, throwthe vertical into the horizontal and stack them up, and what looks a bit randomfrom the side, if you look from the viewpoint of the helicopter, you can seeits organizational structure is actually a hexagonal grid, in which thesehorizontal building blocks are stacked up to create huge outdoor courtyards -central spaces for the community, programmed with a variety of amenities andfunctions.

你可以看到这些庭院空间并非是封闭不透气的空间,它们是开放的、通透的、互相连结的,我们称呼这个项目是 ” 编织 ” ,像是我们人类与空间彼此的交错编织一样。我们设计的每样细节,都与「把空间赋予生命并还给社区居民」有关。事实上,这个系统可以在我们布局主要的公共空间时,让它层层堆叠出越来越多的个人与私密空间。我们展开的是一种介于总体与个人之间的设计概念。

And you see that these courtyards are nothermetically sealed spaces. They’re open, permeable; they’re interconnected. Wecalled the project “The Interlace,” thinking that we interlace andinterconnect the human beings and the spaces alike. And the detailed quality ofeverything we designed was about animating the space and giving the space tothe inhabitants. And, in fact, it was a system where we would layer primarilycommunal spaces, stacked to more and more individual and private spaces. So wewould open up a spectrum between the collective and the individual.

一个小小的数学算式:如果我们把所有在地面上的绿地面积,扣除掉建物投影面积,然后加上所有有绿色植物的露台面积,我们会得出一个112%的绿覆率,比不盖大楼还要有更多的自然空间。

A little piece of math: if we count all thegreen that we left on the ground, minus the footprint of the buildings, and wewould add back the green of all the terraces, we have 112 percent green space,so more nature than not having built a building.

当然,这个小小的数学算式结果说明了我们增加了居民可利用的空间。事实上,这是第13楼的其中一个露台,你会看到提供给社交活动的新标准、新场所。

And of course this little piece of mathshows you that we are multiplying the space available to those who live there.This is, in fact, the 13th floor of one of these terraces. So you see new datumplanes, new grounds planes for social activity.

我们在“可持续发展”上花费了很多心思,在热带地区,阳光是最需要注意的因素,它们事实上要找的是遮蔽处。我们首先确认所有的公寓大楼整年都会有足够的日照时间,然后再进行外墙玻璃优化,来减少建筑物的能量消耗。

We paid a lot of attention tosustainability. In the tropics, the sun is the most important thing to payattention to, and, in fact, it is seeking protection from the sun. We firstproved that all apartments would have sufficient daylight through the year. Wethen went on to optimize the glazing of the facades to minimize the energyconsumption of the building.

更重要的是,我们确信可以透过地形设计来达成这个目的。建物本身提供了足够的遮蔽给中庭花园,所以花园一整年都适宜人们活动和纳凉。我们更进一步地沿着主风廊设置了水池,让它蒸发冷却后形成一个微型气候,进而有效地改善居民居住的空间品质。这个想法创造了多样性的选择、一种你想去哪就去哪、想躲哪就躲哪的自由,在一个多样性的环境产生个人生活的多样性。

But most importantly, we could prove thatthrough the geometry of the building design, the building itself would providesufficient shading to the courtyards so that those would be usable throughoutthe entire year. We further placed water bodies along the prevailing windcorridors, so that evaporative cooling would create microclimates that, again,would enhance the quality of those spaces available for the inhabitants. And itwas the idea of creating this variety of choices, of freedom to think where youwould want to be, where you would want to escape, maybe, within the owncomplexity of the complex in which you live.

三、德国柏林的媒体公司

【TED 演讲】为什么伟大的建筑都需要诉说一段故事/奥雷·舍人

从亚洲来到欧洲:一栋座落在德国柏林的媒体公司,正从传统印刷媒体转型到数字媒体。公司的执行长问了一个很中肯的问题:“为什么现今每个人仍希望到办公室上班,即使他们可以在任何地方办公?一个公司的数字形象定位要如何在建筑物上体现出来?”。我们创作的不只是一个物体,我们还在物体的中心创造了一个大空间,一个有关于共同合作、一起团结奋斗的空间。沟通、互动是空间的核心思想,它会自己浮上来,像是我们所说的” 合作云 “,它就在建物中间,被一个标准模组的办公室所围绕包裹著。从你的办公桌,只要走几步,你就可以到核心空间里的合作云来共同体验。

But coming from Asia to Europe: a buildingfor a German media company based in Berlin,transitioning from the traditional print media to the digital media. And itsCEO asked a few very pertinent questions: Why would anyone today still want togo to the office, because you can actually work anywhere  And how could a digital identity of a companybe embodied in a building  We created notonly an object, but at the center of this object we created a giant space, andthis space was about the experience of a collective, the experience ofcollaboration and of togetherness. Communication, interaction as the center ofa space that in itself would float, like what we call the collaborative cloud,in the middle of the building, surrounded by an envelope of standard modularoffices. So with only a few steps from your quiet work desk, you couldparticipate in the giant collective experience of the central space.

四、伦敦奥林匹克公园文化中心
【TED 演讲】为什么伟大的建筑都需要诉说一段故事/奥雷·舍人

最后,我们来到伦敦,参与了伦敦传承开发公司的一个项目任务。我们被要求要负责研究、调查斯坦福德奥林匹克公园基地的开发潜力。在19世纪,Albert王子当时建立了Albert城,而Boris Johnson想建立奥林匹克城。

Finally, we come to London, a project commissioned by the LondonLegacy Development Corporation of the Mayor of London. We were asked toundertake a study and investigate the potential of a site out in Stratford in the OlympicPark. In the 19th century, Prince  Albert had created Albertopolis. And Boris Johnsonthought of creating Olympicopolis.

想法是把一些英国最伟大的机构和一些国际机构组织在一起,创造出一个新的协同效益系统。当时Albert王子在19世纪建立的Albert城,是想用来展示人类的所有成就,让艺术和科学紧密地结合在一起,于是他打造了会展路,把一系列这样的机构沿路串联在一起。

The idea was to bring together some ofBritain’sgreatest institutions, some international ones, and to create a new system ofsynergies. Prince Albert,as yet, created Albertopolis in the 19th century, thought of showcasing allachievements of mankind, bringing arts and science closer together. And hebuilt Exhibition Road,a linear sequence of those institutions.

当然现今社会已经比当时要进步很多,我们不再是活在每样东西都被界定很清楚的世界,我们活在一种不同领域之间开始模糊的世界,一个彼此合作互动远比保持疏离还要重要的世界。所以我们想建立一个大型的文化机器,一个会协调并赋予不同领域生命的建筑物,但同时也可以让它们彼此互动与合作。

But of course, today’s society has moved onfrom there. We no longer live in a world in which everything is as clearlydelineated or separated from each other. We live in a world in which boundariesstart to blur between the different domains, and in which collaboration andinteraction becomes far more important than keeping separations. So we wantedto think of a giant culture machine, a building that would orchestrate andanimate the various domains, but allow them to interact and collaborate.

而它的基础是个非常简单的模组,一个环形模组。它有双走道、日照、通风佳的功能,可以被透视,也可以变成一个大型展览表演空间。

At the base of it is a very simple module,a ring module. It can function as a double-loaded corridor, has daylight, hasventilation. It can be glazed over and turned into a giant exhibitionalperformance space.

这些模组被堆叠起来,随著时间流逝,任何功能彼此都可能会被其他功能占用,所以机构可能缩小或扩大,因为文化的未来,在某种程度上是最无法预测的。

These modules were stacked together withthe idea that almost any function could, over time, occupy any of thesemodules. So institutions could shrink or contract, as, of course, the future ofculture is, in a way, the most uncertain of all.

这栋建筑将坐落在邻近的水上运动中心旁,正对奥林匹克运动场,你可以看到它的悬臂式空间如何伸出并融入开放空间,它的中庭如何在公共空间里赋予生命。

This is how the building sits, adjacent tothe Aquatics Centre, opposite the Olympic Stadium. And you can see how itscantilevering volumes project out and engage the public space and how itscourtyards animate the public inside.

当时的想法是创造一个多样性复杂的系统,让里面的机构实体可以维持它们本身的辨识性,使它们不会被归类为单一个体空间。

The idea was to create a complex system inwhich institutional entities could maintain their own identity, in which theywould not be subsumed in a singular volume.

这个是它与法国巴黎蓬皮杜艺术中心的比例对照图,两者都显示出其项目的庞大规模与潜力,但也有不一样的地方:它是一个多重异质建筑,里面不同的机构彼此间可以互动,同时保持它们的识别性。

Here’s a scale comparison to the CentrePompidou in Paris.It both shows the enormous scale and potential of theproject, but also the difference: here, it is a multiplicity of a heterogeneousstructure, in which different entities can interact without losing their ownidentity.

创作的想法是这样的:创造一个组织结构可以让不同的故事可以被描述出来–文创、教育、视觉艺术、舞蹈等功能,人们可以自由进入这个一系列空间形成活动轨迹,来阐述他们个人对这些故事叙述的理解与经历。

And it was this thought: to create anorganizational structure that would allow for multiple narratives to bescripted – for those in the educational parts that create and think culture;for those that present the visual arts, the dance; and for the public to beadmitted into all of this with a series of possible trajectories, to scripttheir own reading of these narratives and their own experience.

五、泰国的海上漂浮电影院

【TED 演讲】为什么伟大的建筑都需要诉说一段故事/奥雷·舍人

我想用一个小项目来结束演讲,与常规项目有很大不同:一个在泰国的海上漂浮电影院。

And I want to end on a project that is very small, in a way, verydifferent: a floating cinema in the ocean of Thailand.

我的朋友创立了一个电影节(编者:当时张曼玉还是他的女友),而我当时在想:如果我们来思考电影的故事及脚本,我们也需要思考观看这部电影的观众的脚本。所以我设计了一个小型的飘浮平台模组,主要技术来自当地渔民的龙虾田及鱼田的技术,我们与当地社团合作,全部由他们的回收材料建造。这个令人惊艳的漂浮平台,慢慢地移往海裡,当我们观看来自英国电影资料馆 1904年的「爱丽丝梦游仙境」时,观众最原始的经历会与电影的故事情节相结合。

And I want to end on a project that is verysmall, in a way, very different: a floating cinema in the ocean of Thailand.Friends of mine had founded a film festival, and I thought, if we think of thestories and narratives of movies, we should also think of the narratives of thepeople that watch them. So I designed a small modular floating platform, basedon the techniques of local fishermen, how they built their lobster and fishfarms. We collaborated with the local community and built, out of recycledmaterials of their own, this fantastical floating platform that gently moved inthe ocean as we watched films from the British film archive, [1903] “Alicein Wonderland,” for example. The most primordial experiences of theaudience merged with the stories of the movies.

所以我相信:建筑设计不仅超越了实体物质、建筑环境的范筹,它真的与我们想如何生活、如何阐述我们的故事及其他人的故事息息相关。

So I believe that architecture exceeds thedomain of physical matter, of the built environment, but is really about how wewant to live our lives, how we script our own stories and those of others.

谢谢各位!

Thank you!

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